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At the London Conference in January 2010, the GoA and the DPs agreed to work together to increase the assistance to Afghanistan through the central budget 50% over the next two years.  This commitment represents critical shift in financing for development.  To ensure effective utilization of these resources, Government presented credible plans in the Kabul Conference for further strength of Public Finance Management System (PMFS) reducing the risk of corruption, improving budget execution, developing a financing strategy for development and improvement in the Government’s capacity to deliver.

This PFM roadmap aims how the Government intends to strengthen the ability of government to effectively design and implement programming while demonstrating the highest standards of transparency and accountability.  It is focused on three key aims:

  1. 1.strengthening the budget in driving effective delivery of key priority outcome
  2. 2.improving Budget Execution
  3. 3.increasing accountability and transparency
  4. 4.increasing the capacity of line ministries to implement program effectively and efficiently

The Independent Administrative Reform and Civil Service Commission (IARCSC) was established  in 2003, with the mandate of establishing a modern, responsive, democratic, gender sensitive, transparent and accountable public administration enabled to manage public resources efficiently and effectively for improved service delivery in a fair and equitable manner.  As a part of the reform, the PAR phase was launched at the beginning of 2005 and completed in early 2009. The main functions of PAR included preparing job descriptions for each position, candidate recruitment, monitoring and evaluation, and organizational development.  The PAR program resulted in all positions being announced and the selection of applicants taking place based on standard criteria established by the program. 

A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any government. The term is usually used by governments to refer to entities that have no government status. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. The term is usually applied only to organizations that pursue some wider social aim that has political aspects, but that are not overtly political organizations such as political parties. Unlike the term "intergovernmental organization", the term "non-governmental organization" has no generally agreed legal definition. In many jurisdictions, these types of organization are called "civil society organizations" or referred to by other names.

Civil society is composed of voluntary social relationships, civic and social organizations, and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society, as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that state's political system) and the commercial institutions of the market. Together, state, market and civil society constitute the entirety of a society, and the relations between these three components determine the character of a society and its structure. Civil societies are often populated by organizations such as registered charities, development non-governmental organizations, community groups, women's organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, trade unions, self-help groups, social movements, business associations, coalitions and advocacy groups. 

The Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP) in Afghanistan was established to give military commanders in Afghanistan the ability to respond to urgent humanitarian relief and reconstruction needs. Starting in 2004, Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT) and US military forces have been implementing CERP in Afghanistan to catalyze the reconstruction and strengthen the reach of Afghanistan government to communities. One of the most important goals of this program is security stabilization. The Department of Defense (DOD) defines urgent as any chronic or acute inadequacy of an essential good or service that in the judgment of the local commander calls for immediate action.

With most small-scale projects (less than $500,000), CERP is a quick and effective method that provides an immediate, positive impact on the local population while other larger reconstruction projects are still getting off the ground. The CERP field commanders in Afghanistan can fund initiatives to win hearts and minds, and promote the growth of local institutions in the phase of war. The CERP is important, providing U.S. governmental appropriations directly to tactical units for the purpose of meeting emergency needs of local Afghan civilians. According to the SIGAR report of Jan 2011, total cumulative funding appropriated for CERP stands at USD 2.64 billion. The total amount committed is USD 1.99 billion, of which USD 1.54 billion has been disbursed.

CERP working sectors includes Agriculture, Commerce and industry, Community Development, Condolence Payments, Capacity Building, Education, Emergency Assistance, Environment, Gender, Governance, Health, Irrigation, Security, Transportation and WATSAN.